Glossary

Antibodies
Protein molecules whose specific function is to defend the body from pathogens; synonym: immunoglobulins

Apheresis
Procedure by which different blood components are separated from each other

BfArM
Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte (German Federal Institute for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices)

Bio-hybrid
Combination of a mechanical and a biological system

Bioreactor
Device that ensures the ability of a biological system (e.g. cells or bacteria) to function by stabilising the temperature, oxygen and nutrition

Biosensor
Procedure or device that carries out a test based on the reaction of a biological system

Blood cells
Red blood cells transport oxygen in the blood; white blood cells detect and defend against incoming pathogens.

Blood plasma
All blood components that are not cells, also referred to as "blood water", contains proteins, fats etc.

Causal
Be the cause for

Chemiluminescence
Release of light as the result of a chemical reaction

Contamination
Impurities

CPMP
Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products: advisory committee for the EMEA for Pharmaceuticals

Cryoconservation
Storage in a frozen state

Cytokines
Protein mediators released by cells that regulate the function of other cells

Diagnostics
All activities dedicated to detecting past, present and future illnesses

EMEA
European Medicines Agency: European regulatory body for the centralised marketing approval of pharmaceuticals within the European Union

Endotoxins
Membrane components of some bacteria that induce fever

Enzymes
Bio-catalysers based on proteins

Extracorporeal
Something that takes place outside the body

FDA
U.S. Food and Drug Administration: regulatory body for the marketing approval of pharmaceuticals, medical products, food, cosmetics within the U.S.

Fluorometer
Device for measuring fluorescence

Fluorescence
Light of a different wavelength released after illumination

GMP
Good Manufacturing Practice: All of the regulations on the correct manufacture of pharmaceuticals

Granulocytes
Small blood phagocytes, make up around 50% of white blood cells

HLA
Human Leukocyte Antigen: Individual-specific protein molecules in cells by which the immune system recognises whether they are the body's own cells

Human albumin
Albumin is the main protein in blood plasma

ICE
Immune competence enhancement

IDE
Investigational Device Exemption: allowance for using new medical devices in clinical studies

Idiopathic
With no detectable cause

Immune system
All of an organism's defence mechanisms against the pathogens

Immunoglobulin
See Antibodies

Immunomodulation
Influencing the immune system

In-vitro
Outside the organism, e.g. in a test-tube

In-vivo
In a living organism

i.v.
"Intravenous": to inject something into a blood vein

KfW
Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (“Credit Institute for Reconstruction”, i.e. German Institution to grant governmental support)

Lethality
Proportion of those who died of those who were sick

Leukocytes
White blood cells

Macrophages
Large phagocytes

Mediators
Messengers, substances that transfer signals

Monocytes
Subset of large phagocytes

Mortality
Proportion of the population (group) who died

PEI
Paul-Ehrlich-Institute: Regulatory body for the marketing approval of some pharmaceuticals (blood, biotech, vaccines) within Germany

Phagocytes
Immune cells that take up and kill bacteria and fungi

Phagocytosis
The process of taking up bacteria or fungi

Plasma
See blood plasma

Plasmapheresis
Procedure in which blood plasma is separated from blood cells

PMA
Pre-Market-Approval: Approval procedure for innovative medical products in the USA

Prognosis
Forecast of how something will turn out

Prospective
Looking to the future

Protein
Protein molecule

Reimbursement
Repayment of costs (e.g. by health insurance company)

Rheumatism
Actually "rheumatoid arthritis", covers joint and endocardium inflammations

Sepsis
Any infection disease in which inflammation has gone beyond the local area

Serum
All soluble blood plasma components after coagulation. Is the same as blood plasma without the coagulation factors

SIRS
Septic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: The patient has the clinical symptoms of a sepsis but at that particular point in time there is no evidence for an infection (yet). Frequently becomes sepsis.

Therapy
Treating an illness

Thrombocytopenia
Depletion of platelets, results in heavier bleeding

Tissue engineering
In-vitro production of tissues and organs

510(k)
Approvals procedure for medical devices in the USA that have substantial equivalence to a medical device that has already been approved